This focuses on generating the certificates for loading local virtual hosts hosted on your computer, for development only.
Do not use self-signed certificates in production !
For online certificates, use Let's Encrypt instead (tutorial).
Certificate authority (CA)
openssl req -x509 -nodes -new -sha256 -days 1024 -newkey rsa:2048 -keyout RootCA.key -out RootCA.pem -subj "/C=US/CN=Example-Root-CA" openssl x509 -outform pem -in RootCA.pem -out RootCA.crt
Example-Root-CA is an example, you can customize the name.
Domain name certificate
Let's say you have two domains
fake2.local that are hosted on your local machine
for development (using the
hosts file to point them to
First, create a file
domains.ext that lists all your local domains:
authorityKeyIdentifier=keyid,issuer basicConstraints=CA:FALSE keyUsage = digitalSignature, nonRepudiation, keyEncipherment, dataEncipherment subjectAltName = @alt_names [alt_names] DNS.1 = localhost DNS.2 = fake1.local DNS.3 = fake2.local
openssl req -new -nodes -newkey rsa:2048 -keyout localhost.key -out localhost.csr -subj "/C=US/ST=YourState/L=YourCity/O=Example-Certificates/CN=localhost.local" openssl x509 -req -sha256 -days 1024 -in localhost.csr -CA RootCA.pem -CAkey RootCA.key -CAcreateserial -extfile domains.ext -out localhost.crt
Note that the country / state / city / name in the first command can be customized.
You can now configure your webserver, for example with Apache:
```SSLEngine on SSLCertificateFile "C:/example/localhost.crt" SSLCertificateKeyFile "C:/example/localhost.key"```
Trust the local CA
At this point, the site would load with a warning about self-signed certificates.
In order to get a green lock, your new local CA has to be added to the trusted Root Certificate Authorities.
Windows 10: Chrome, IE11 & Edge
Windows 10 recognizes
.crt files, so you can right-click on
Install to open the import dialog.
Make sure to select "Trusted Root Certification Authorities" and confirm.
You should now get a green lock in Chrome, IE11 and Edge.
Windows 10: Firefox
There are two ways to get the CA trusted in Firefox.
The simplest is to make Firefox use the Windows trusted Root CAs by going to
The other way is to import the certificate by going
Confirm for websites.
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